Book a Meeting

Phage and Proteus

Creative Biolabs has long-term commitment to offering a full range of services and strong support in the field of phages. Our team of experts has a strong academic background to help you solve problems related to cutting-edge research and therapeutic development of phage and Proteus.

Proteus and CAUTIs

Proteus is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria, that belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Proteus is widely distributed in decomposing bodies, sewage, soil, intestines, and feces. There are three common species belonging to the genus: Proteus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri, that are pathogens causing a variety of infections, such as urinary tract infections, kidney infections, and septic infections. P. mirabilis causes up to 90% of human infections by forming crystalline biofilms along the urinary tract and producing urease enzymes, which are referred to as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The enzyme hydrolyzes urea to produce ammonia, which increases the pH of the urine, which leads to calcium-magnesium-phosphate deposition and provides P. mirabilis with adherent microparticles that exacerbate the infection. Therefore, the CAUTIs may result in pyelonephritis, septicemia, and even shock in severer cases. To address antibiotic resistance and prevent biofilm formation during chronic CAUTIs, novel treatments targeting Proteus and Proteus biofilms need to be developed.

Bacteriophages of Proteus

Phages have attracted the attention of researchers with their lysis of specific bacteria. With their specificity for bacteria, low manufacturing costs, and anti-resistance effects, phages serve as tools for bacterial isolation and diagnosis, and as treatments to control harmful Proteus infections and co-infections. The crystalline biofilm structure formed by P. mirabilis is highly resistant to antibiotics. Common antibiotics can only act on the surface of the biofilm, while bacteria inside can easily mutate into resistant variants. Phage therapies, especially phage cocktails, are seemed to be more effective against the bacterial biofilm formation. Several studies have demonstrated the preventive and scavenging effects of phage on the surface colonization of P. mirabilis. In designing the formulation of phage cocktails for the treatment of CAUTIs, we should also take into account the effect of changes in the acid-base environment of the urinary tract on the efficacy and effectiveness of the treatment.

Capsid and plaque morphology of Proteus mirabilis phages.Fig.1 Capsid and plaque morphology of Proteus mirabilis phages. (Alves, 2019)

Creative Biolabs is a pioneering manufacturer and contract research organization. Our skilled staff can address any issues you may encounter in creating Proteus phage therapies, including isolation and identification of certain phages, prevention of phage resistance, formulation and stability studies of phage-based therapies, and phage bioengineering. If you are interested in learning more about phages and Proteus, please don't hesitate to contact us.


  1. Alves, D. R.; et al. Genomic and ecogenomic characterization of Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages. Frontiers in microbiology. 2019, 10: 1783.
For Research Use Only. Do NOT use in humans.

Send Inquiry

* For Research Use Only. We do not provide direct services or products for patients.