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Phage and Listeria

Creative Biolabs has years of experience in the phage field. Our team of professionals not only provides comprehensive phage-based therapy development and manufacturing services, but also provides you with comprehensive knowledge support to overcome obstacles in your research and development process.

Listeria and Listeriosis


The genus Listeria is Gram-positive, rod-shaped, belonging to the family of the phylum Firmicutes. There are multiple species belonging to the genus Listeria. However, only Listeria monocytogenes are the species of pathogenic Listeria that result in bacterial infection of listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes are usually present in food and water and transmit through oral ingestion of contaminated food, which cause listeriosis via penetration of the gastrointestinal tract to cause systemic infections. The Listeria usually infect young, old, pregnant, and immunocompromised individuals. The clinical symptoms of listeriosis include gastroenteritis and fever, in severe cases, abortion in pregnant women, sepsis, meningitis, or encephalitis. Listeria can survive in high salt and low temperature environments and are susceptible to biofilm formation, thus posing a high risk of pathogenic bacteria in the food industry.

Bacteriophages of Listeria

Bacteriophages have become an emerging focus of research and development interest, as they can be applied as therapeutics to control pathogenic bacteria, and as advanced tools for separation and diagnostics of bacteria. More than 500 bacteriophages specific for Listeria have been isolated and characterized up to date, which are used to control foodborne outbreaks and epidemics. The constructed luciferase Listeria reporter phage can be used to detect foodborne Listeria, which is more sensitive and faster than conventional enrichment and plating protocols. Phage-based biocontrol is most effective by removal of the Listeria or Listeria biofilms from contaminations in food material, food production facilities, aquiculture, etc. In addition, anti-Listeria phage cocktails containing multiple types of phages have also been developed and approved by FDA and USDA, which are applied in fresh-cut productions, such as melons. Furthermore, the usage of recombinant phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases (endolysins) is another biocontrol and detection strategy for Listeria or Listeria biofilms, which has less difficulty in being approved as protein-based disinfectants compared to phage products.

Listeria phage morphology visualized by transmission electron microscopy.Fig.2 Listeria phage morphology visualized by transmission electron microscopy. (Erickson, 2021)

As a pioneering global contract development and manufacturing company, Creative Biolabs is equipped with professional scientists and advanced technologies in phage research and development. Creative Biolabs is dedicated to providing our global customers with extensive expertise and comprehensive solutions in phage applications, including but not limited to phage-based pathogen detection, phage-based vaccines, and phage-based therapies. We are ready to receive your inquiry and solve problems of your programs. Please don't hesitate to contact us.


  1. Erickson, S.; et al. Isolation and engineering of a Listeria grayi bacteriophage. Scientific reports. 2021, 11(1): 1-12.
For Research Use Only. Do NOT use in humans.

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