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In Vivo Services for Phage-based Vaccine Development

Phages have been recognized as promising vehicles for the delivery of immunogenic peptides or DNA vaccines. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of phage-displayed vaccines, phage DNA vaccines, and hybrid phage vaccines, Creative Biolabs established a phage vehicle platform for vaccine development, which provides our global customers a full range of in vivo services for the discovery of phage-based vaccines.

In Vivo Disease and Research Models

Currently, there are still many diseases that have no cure, such as viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections and cancers, which become serious health risks for humans or animals. Therefore, the development of phage-based vaccines against diseases is an effective approach. We establish animal models of mice or rabbits with a consistent genetic background and low costs. The animal models are customized for the development of phage-based vaccines against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as for the development of hybrid phage vaccines against cancer.

In Vivo Immunogenicity and Immunopotency Assays

The in vivo assays for the determination of immunogenicity and immunopotency are based on the serological analytical assays, which assess multiple immune indices, including antibody levels, antibody avidity, and cellular immune responses in the serum that is separated from animals or volunteers treated with the phage-based vaccines. In vivo immune specificity is determined by multiple assays, including cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSA), competitive assay, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and in vivo imaging via fluorescent or radioactive labeling.

Immunological mechanism of phage-based vaccines.Fig.1 Immunological mechanism of phage-based vaccines. (González-Mora, 2020)

In Vivo Toxicity Assay

Our in vivo toxicity studies based on animal models include general toxicity studies and reproductive toxicity studies. Our general toxicity studies initiate from the determination of the effect of single dose and repeat doses on immune responses and other physiological functions. Our services also include comprehensive measurements of female and male reproduction and prenatal and postnatal fetal development parameters as well as genotoxicity to evaluate the impact of phage-based vaccines on reproduction and fetal development.

In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Assay

Pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies are important in vivo methods for investigating the safety and efficacy of phage-based vaccines. Pharmacokinetic parameters, quantitative tissue distribution, metabolite profiles, bioavailability evaluation, bioequivalence studies, etc. are evaluated by us according to the frequency of administration, route of administration, and dose, respectively.

In Vivo Services for Phage-based Vaccine Development

Creative Biolabs has been deeply involved in the field of vaccine development for over a decade, leading the vaccine development industry with a wide range of products and excellent services. Following the growing trend of our new technologies, we continue to develop services related to new research areas, such as the development of phage-based vaccines. Our superior phage-based vaccine preclinical in vivo assays are available to meet your specific requirements in research and development. Our experienced scientists ensure rapid screening as well as the safety and efficacy of phage-based vaccines. If you are interested in learning more about our in vivo services for phage-based vaccine development, please don't hesitate to contact us.


  1. González-Mora, A.; et al. Bacteriophage-based vaccines: A potent approach for antigen delivery. Vaccines. 2020, 8(3): 504.
For Research Use Only. Do NOT use in humans.

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* For Research Use Only. We do not provide direct services or products for patients.